Colorado College Tutt Library

Helen Hunt Jackson 1-2-7 transcription

Helen Hunt Jackson Papers, Part 1, Ms 0020, Box 2, Folder 7: 8 letters (some of them copies) to people other than HHJ.
Transcribed by Irene Draper and Kate Vukovich, 2013.

[On printed letterhead with “AM” written at the top:]

Department of the Interior,

Office of Indian Affairs,

Washington, March 7th, 1883

[In a box at the top:

Refer in the reply to the following L.

12362- 1881.

12 – 1882

3255- 1882.]

S. S. Lawson. Esq.,

U.S. Indian Agent,

Mission Agency,

San Bernardino,



Referring to your letter, dated July 12. 1881, in which you state that the lands occupied by the Capitan Granda [sic—modern spelling Grande] Indians, of the Dieguerno [sic—modern spelling Digueno] tribe, are outside of the reservation and ask that an addition be made of eight sections, as indicated in a plat enclosed, I have to state that from informal inquiry at the General Land Office I learn that one Charles Hensly has made homestead entry in section 22. Tp. 14 S. R. 2 E. alleging settlement June 1, 1881, and that James Meads has also made homestead entry in the same section, alleging settlement February 1, 1882.

These two entries include the land indicated on the plat as being occupied by Ignacio.

If the circumstances justify it, these entries can be contested in the same manner as that referred to the San Ysidro Indians.

The rest of the addition proposed by you appear to be vacant.

You will report whether this addition is still needed for the benefit of these Indians.

I return the plat as requested by you.

Very respectfully,

H. Price



[hand drawn map attached]



[On printed letterhead with “(COPY)” printed on the top:]

Land, Department of the Interior

Office of Indian Affairs,

Washington, March 7th, 1883

[In a box in the top left corner:

Refer in reply to the following

144 - 1882,

1708 “

4522 – 1883,]

S.S.Lawson Esq.,

U.S. Indian Agent,

Mission Agency,

San Bernardino, Cal.


I am in receipt of your communication dated Feb. 15, 1883, in which you call attention to the wrongs perpetrated against the little settlement of Indians, known as the San Ysidro Village of the San Luis Rey tribe, who seem about to be deprived of their cultivated fields by heartless land sharks ; that the Chief is nearly crazed on account of this trouble ; that Chatham Helm has received a patent for a portion of the land occupied by these Indians, and that Armon [sic] Cloos has recently filed on another tract, and ask if this latter filing cannot be canceled.

You also refer to the laws of California regarding the right to the stream of water which the Indians have utilized for irrigating purposes for more than twenty-five years and ask if they cannot retain the exclusive use thereof and thus render the land useless to other parties.

You also state that your letters of December 27, 1881, and January 19, 1882, have remained unanswered.

In reply I have to state that I know of no way in which the patent issued to Helm can be cancelled, except by suit in the proper Courts, which would most probably result adversely to the Indians.

From informal inquiry at the General Land Office it appears that there is an error in the plat inclosed [sic] by you, as the S.W.1-4 of the N.W.104, Sec. 34, is not included to the patent to Helm, the other 40 acres being situated in Section 35. So far as the filing made by Cloos is concerned, it is probable that something can be done to defeat his entry.

The Secretary of the Interior has recently rendered a decision affirming the doctrine laid down in Atherton vs. Fowler, (6 U.S.513) and Hosmer vs. Wallace, (97 U.S.575).

In these cases it was held that the right of preemption could not be initiated by forcible intrusion upon the possession of one who had already settled upon, improved, and enclosed that tract, and that such an intrusion, though made under the pretense of preempting the land, was but a naked trespass.

If these Indians were in possession of the land in question at the time it was surveyed, and had improved and cultivated the same, and Cloos intruded upon it with force, or in such a manner as to amount to a forcible dispossession of the Indians, the case would seem to come within the decision of the Supreme Court and that of the Secretary in the recent case of Brown vs. Quinlan et al.

If the Indians desire to hold their lands and improvements it will be necessary for some one of them (the Chief would be the proper party) to institute a contest to test the validity of the entry made by Cloos, and to establish the Indian’s right to enter the land. Should the Indian be successful in his contest he would then have to make a homestead entry for himself and the patent would issue in his name, but he could then hold the land for the benefit of the village. The cost of the contest will have to be borne by the Indians.

So far as the use of the Creek is concerned, you will have to act upon your own judgment, using all proper measures to secure the Indians in their just rights.

Your previous letters upon this subject were not intentionally ignored, but owing to the transfer of the clerk to whom they were referred to another division of the Office, they were overlooked.

I enclose for your information a copy of the decision of the Secretary of the Interior referred to, and Rules of Practice before the District Land Offices, &c.

You will furnish for the information of this Office a description of all the tracts occupied and cultivated by these Indians.

Very respectfully,

H. Price,





San Diego Mch 31- 1883

Messrs Bicknell & White

Los Angeles Cal.


Yours of 29th inst. received this day.

I have carefully examined the patents of Ranchos Valley de San Jose and Santa Ysabel, of record in my office, and find nothing therein in relation to Indians in any manner whatever.

Yours truly

E. G. Naight,

County Recorder,

San Diego Ca. Cal.

Fees $1.00




[On printed letterhead with “Copy” written on the top:]

Land, Department of the Interior

Office of Indian Affairs,

Washington, June 23, 1882

[In a box in the top left corner:

Refer in reply to the following Se

11429.- 1882]

The Honorable

The Secretary of the Interior.


I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt, by your reference, of a letter from one Helen Jackson, dated San Francisco, June 11-, 1882, enclosing a letter from Jose Jesus Castillo, a Mission Indian, dated San Jacinto, California, May 29-, 1882, wherein it is stated, in substance, that Castillo’s grandfather settled in the San Jacinto Valley more than one hundred year ago, that some years ago a grant of land was given to a family by the name of Estudillo by the Mexican Government; that the first survey of said land did not take in any of the land claimed by the Indians; that four year ago a new survey was made taking in all the little farms, the stream of water, and the Village, and a patent issued therfor [sic] by the U.S. Government; that said lands are now being divided, and with the Village, will soon be assigned to the owner under the patent.

The letter of Helen Jackson speaks in complimentary terms of young Castillo and his Grandfather “Old Victoriano.” and states, in substance, that this family have a good adobe house, a vineyard, two orchards and some stock; that they have lived on this place over a hundred years, and that Victoriano’s father planted the orchards and vine-yard; that these people do not wish a land title in common with their tribe, but desire a title given to them individually; and that she would very much like to be empowered by the Department to make an investigation and report in behalf of these Indians.

On informed examination in the General Land Office, the following facts are learned in connection with the Estudillo grants (diagram herewith,) viz: San Jacinto Nuevo y Potrero. This grant was confirmed by U.S. District Court under Act of March 3-, 1851, to Thomas W. Sutherland, guardian minor children of Miguel Pedrorena, deceased, and of Maria Antonia Estudillo, his wife. Confirmation is for eleven leagues, or 48,825.48 acres, and is now pending survey under Department decision, and when the survey is returned in conformity with said decision, patent will issue. The land is included within the double red lines and blue lines northwest of what is marked on diagram as dotted line on O. Farrah’s map.

San Jacinto. This grant was confirmed by Board (Act March 3-, 1851,) November 21-, 1854.

Confirmed by District Court March 18-, 1858- Appeal dismissed by U.S. Supreme Court, October 19-, 1875. Final decree November 2-, 1875, Confirmation was to Victoria.

Dominques de Estudiloo et al. heirs of Jose Antonio Estudillo. The survey contains 35,503.03 acres, was patented July 17-, 1880, and embraces land represented within lines shaded green on accompanying diagram.

In my opinion it would be advisable to adopt the suggestion made by Helen Jackson looking to an investigation and report, and I would therefore respectfully recommend that she be authorized to visit that locality, with the view of ascertaining if the lands within the boundaries, as indicated on the diagram, remaining if any, after the completion of the survey, are of such a character as to afford these Indians suitable homes upon which they could make a living and warrant the setting aside of the same by Executive Order for that purpose. If no such lands are found within the limits specified then, that she be authorized to ascertain whether there be others in that vicinity that could be made available as a permanent home for these Indians.

In the event of lands being found that are suitable for the location of these Indians, such a description thereof should be furnished, if surveyed, by Section, Township and Range, and if not, by natural objects, as will enable this office to draft an Executive Order covering them, also the number of Indians in that vicinity that can be located upon a reservation, should one be selected, their character, mode of life and such other information as may be of benefit to the Department. It might be well to ascertain from the parties holding under the above grants, whether some arrangements cannot be effected with them for the sale of a tract sufficient to cover the village and other improvements of the Indians.


The papers referred to are herewith returned.

Very respectfully,

Your obedient servant,

H. Price,



[attached: Diagram referred to in previous letter]




Printer’s No., 4370

45 Congress

2nd Session H. R. 4067

In the House of Representatives

March 25, 1878.

Read twice, referred to the Committee on Indians Affairs, and ordered to be printed

Mr. Luttrell, on leave, introduced the following bill

A. Bill

To provide for the consolidation of the Mission Indians of California

1 Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Repres-

2 entatives of the United States of America in Congress as-

3 sembled, That there be, and is hereby, appropriated, out of any money

4 in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated the sum of fifty

5 thousand dollars, for the purchase from Thaddeus Amat, of

6 Los Angeles, California, of two leagues of land being and lying

7 in the county of San Diego, California or the vicinity

8 thereof, according to the terms of a written proposition made

9 by the representatives of said Thaddeus Amat, to the Commissioner

10 of Indian Affairs, dated March second

11 eighteen hundred and seventy eight. Said land when so purchased

12shall be, and is hereby, granted and dedicated to and for the

13use of the Mission Indians of


[written on end:]

H.R. 4067

A bill

To provide for the consolidation of the Mission Indians of California

March 25, 1878.—Read twice, referred to the Committee on Indian Affairs, and ordered to be printed.




Copy 1/1902. D.C. 1881

Washington, D.C.,

January 19, 1881.

To the President:-

During the recent visit of the Indian Commission appointed by you to the Indian Territory, the condition of the Nez Percé Indians there was brought to the attention of several members of said Commission, and their sympathy excited by the earnest appeals of a delegation from that tribe.

Hoping that they may find relief at your hands, I earnestly request your favorable consideration of the following:-

In September, 1877, the Nez Percé, under Chief Joseph, was captured by my command; at the time of their surrender they were informed by me that it was the design of the Government to place them upon what is known as the Small Nez Percé Reservation, in Idaho. This was in accordance with existing orders of the Interior and Was Departments, at that time. I believe that a due regard for my word, to good faith of the government and every other consideration, require that the policy of the government at that time be maintained.

It is an undoubted fact that the Nez Percé War was caused by an effort to remove a portion of the tribe from a section of land which they held by treaty, and prized more highly than life itself, and to place them upon what is known as the “Small reservation.” In the war that followed many lives were lost on both sides; but for the first time in Indian warfare, the skill and bravery of the Indians were equaled by their humanity. The deprecations committed by them were comparatively few; they respected the virtue of captive women, and in some instances rescued prisoners.

The war terminated after a fierce fight, in which many of the leaders including Looking Glass and four other Chiefs were killed, the remainder being captured. After their surrender no judicial investigation was made to ascertain who was responsible for the disturbance, or what parties were guilty or innocent. The whole camp, including women and children, as well as wounded, were sent to the Indian Territory, where they have been practically held in confinement for more than three years.

From the days of Lewis and Clarke, the Nez Percés have been known as a friendly and peaceable tribe.

Previous to 1877, they were to a great extent self sustaining, and had made considerable progress in civilization. Missionaries had been among them for years, and many of them were professed Christians, and, as a tribe they had abandoned many of their Indian customs. The Nez Percés are a hardy mountain race, accustomed to a cold climate, and illy suited to the warm malarial districts of the South.

Their confinement in the Indian Territory has been most unfortunate. Out of 450 who were sent there, together with the children born during the three years since their surrender, only 358 remain alive. One hundred and eighty deaths have occurred in this small village. Many of this number died on the military reservation at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas.

Surely this statement alone appeals strongly to every sentiment of justice and humanity. The appeal made by the delegation that met us, was addressed to the sympathies of the white race- “To the President of the Whole people, and to their God,- that they may be no longer held in that country to degenerate and perish by disease and death.” Their cry was for “Justice and Mercy.”

The two principal objections urged against their restoration to their native country are, first: The fact that some of the men have been indicted in the Territorial Courts of Idaho; and Second: the fear that they may cause trouble in the future. The first objection is answered by the fact that many of those so indicted are in their grave; those who still live are willing to meet any just accusation that may be made against them. If they should be punished, are not the ends of justice being defeated by their being with held? If the President shall consider that they have been sufficiently punished, as a tribe, it is within his province to exercise such pardoning power as he may deem just. I believe that their restoration to the remainder of their tribe now upon the reservation set apart for them, would result in good rather than evil.

The example would convince other tribes that the Government, though all-powerful, does not design to punish a whole village for the acts of a few individuals.

As this whole matter has occurred during the present administration, and is entirely within its control, I earnestly recommend and hope that the President will be pleased to order the remnant of this band sent to the reservation now occupied by the Nez Percé Indians in Northern Idaho.

They will gladly make the journey back to the clear atmosphere and mountain streams of their old homes without expense to the Government.

Before submitting this letter I have furnished a copy to Secretary Carl Schurz, who has manifested the strongest sympathy and interest in the welfare of this and all other tribes of Indians and asked his approval of the above recommendations.

I have the honor to remain,

with the highest respect,

Your obedient servant,

[l&gd?], Nelson A. Miles,

Brig. General,

U.S. Army.

Department of the Interior,

Washington, February 21., 1881.


I have read and carefully considered the letter addressed to you by Gen. Miles, concerning the Nez Percé Indians at present located in the Indian Territory.

That letter having been referred to me for information, I beg leave to return it with the following remarks:-

General Miles states that the Nez Percés and Chief Joseph having been captured by him in September, 1877, he informed them that it was the design of the Government to place them upon what is known as the small Nez Percé Reservation in Idaho, and that he believes a due regard for his word, the good faith of the Government, and every other consideration, require that his promise given the Nez Percés at that time, be made good. He further speaks of the hardships suffered by the Nez Percés in consequence of their removal to the Indian Territory, and recommends that they be returned to Idaho.

The removal of the Nex Percés to the Indian Territory is described in the report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, for the year 1878, as follows:--

“.On the surrender of Joseph and his band of Nez Percés, General Miles recommended that they be kept on the Tongue River [in Montana] until the question of their final disposition could be definitely determined.

“The Lieutenant-General of the Army strongly objects to this, on account of the expense attendant upon furnishing them with supplies, and an order was issued by the War Depot, in November, 1877, to send all the Nez Percé prisoners to the Missouri River to Fort Lincoln or Fort Riley; on the 20 of the same month another order was issued to have them forwarded to Fort Leavenworth instead of keeping them at either of the points named. November 27, 1877, the Lieutenant General notified the Secretary of War of their arrival at the latter post, and recommended that his [one word] be requested to take charge of them at the earliest practicable date.

“The number of prisoners reported by the War Department Dec. 4. last, was as follows:- 79 men, 178 women, and 174 children, making a total of 431. A few scattered members of the band were subsequently taken by the military and also sent to Fort Leavenworth.

“The necessary provision having been made by Congress just before the close of the last session, for the settlement of these Indians in the Indian Territory this office on the 9. of July last recommended that the War Department be requested to [cancel?] the necessary orders to be issued to the Commandant at Fort Leavenworth to deliver the prisoners to an agent who would be designated by this [one word] to receive them. Accordingly on the 21st of the same month they were delivered to United States Indian Inspector McNeil and United States Indian Agent H. W. Jones, who without military escort, conducted them to the location selected for them in the Indian Territory. The number reported to have been turned over to the Inspector and Agent was 410, three of whom –children- died on the route.

“Inspector McNeil reported that the camping place selected by the Commandant for these Indians, and where he found them, was in the Missouri River bottom, about two miles above the fort ‘between a lagoon and the river, and the worst possible place that could have been selected, and the sanitary condition of the Indians proved it.’ The physicians in charge said that one half could be said to be sick, and all were affected by the poisonous malaria of the camp.

“After the arrival of Joseph and his band in the Indian Territory, the bad effect of their location at Fort Leavenworth, manifested itself in the prostration by sickness at one time of 260 of the 410; and within a few months they have lost by death more than one quarter of the entire member.

“A little care in the selection of a wholesome location near Fort Leavenworth would have saved very much sickness and many lives.”

From this it appears that the transportation of the Nez Percés eastward was a military measure, executed by order from the Army Headquarters and that the Interior Department took charge of the Nez Percé prisoners only after they had been held by the Army for a considerable time at Fort Leavenworth It appears also that the sickly condition from which the Nez Percés suffered for some time, originated in their unwholesome location near that place.

The Nez Percés under Chief Joseph, captured by General Miles, were held as prisoners of war, and were as such turned over to the care of the Interior Department on the 21st of July, 1878. Having been turned over to the care of the Indian office at For Leavenworth, they were located in the Indian Territory upon lands of good quality, and in as healthy a location as could be found there.

The question of the return of these Nez Percés to Idaho has been considered before, and so far it has been held that such return would result in very dangerous consequences to them, inasmuch as on account of murders committed at the the beginning of the Nez Percé War by several members of that tribe in Idaho, a number of indictments were found against them in that Territory; and it was reported on good authority, that if they were returned, private vengeance would be likely to be visited upon them without any process of law; and that therefore their return would be apt to result in the destruction of a larger portion of that tribe, and in further grand difficulties.

Their return to Idaho was therefore deemed inadvisable on account of their own safety. Whether it could be accomplished now without serious danger to them, I am not advised; but as Gen. Miles has been assigned as Commander of the Department of which the Territory of Idaho forms a part; and as he believes himself able under such circumstances to protect the Nez Percés if returned there, from lawless attacks and to provide for their safety; I would respectfully suggest that when General Miles shall have taken command of his Department, and shall have satisfied himself of the condition of things there, and the probable consequences of the return of the Nez Percés to Idaho; and shall feel himself able to [inserted above: “report to the”] the Department reasonable assurances of his ability to provide for the necessary protection of the Nez Percés, against the danger above indicated; and it appears that the removal of Indian settlements from that part of the Indian Territory will not encourage the threatened invasion of that Territory by lawless intruders, thus endangering the peace and safety of the numerous tribes located there, proper measures might be taken to effect the return of the Nez Percés to Idaho, unless they prefer to remain in the Indian Territory.

I have the honor to return herewith the letter of General Miles.

Very Respectfully,

[(&gd?)] C. Schurz.

The President.


[attached: “Copy SBP 1/312 D.C. 1881.” written across the top in red]

Vancouver, B.K. Oct 24th 1881

Asst Adjt General.

Wil Div of the Pacific

Presidio San Francisco, Cal.


In accordance with instructions dated Division Headquarters June 7th, 1881, I have the honor to report that I have as far as possible investigated the question of the Nez Perce Indians returning to their reservation in Idaho. I still adhere to my opinion that to banish a village of people many of them entirely innocent, is not in accordance with any law or just rules, and I therefore recommend that that portion of the tribe not charged with crime be allowed to return to their reservation.

As Department Commander I have not the least apprehension of trouble from them, and I believe the effect of their experience and return upon the remainder of the tribe and other tribes in the vicinity would be beneficial in this opinion the Past Commander of the Fort Lapwai Major Piersen concurs with me.

The following named men have been charged with murder and indicted in the U. S. Court.

[The following is a chart with Headers written in red:]

Name Date of Crime Person Killed Indictment found.

[between lines in red: “First”]

[Haishes Max Mau?] June 14 1877 Ben Uerten Apl 13th, 1877

Alleh-mattec “ “ “

Ales-yah-Kuhu “ “ “

Ulue-lok-mooh “ “{killed also his child in Bear Paw [Monument?] Apl 13th 1880

Fesia-nect orol “ Ben Uerten “

Tab-bec-boo. “ “ “

[between lines in red: “Second.”]

Young Joseph “ Jeannette Manuel [“<child>” written above the line] “

Ya-nook-yah ilp ilp “ “ “

Chittem-neox-neox. “ “ “

[between lines in red: “Third.”]

Hausto. lip Kourn June 13, 1877 Henry Elpes [“<zauw>” written above the line] “

[“Alice” written between the lines]

Young-be-low-pe-law [indicated as included in line above]

[between lines in red: “Fourth.”]

Young Joseph June 14th 1877 John Wingate Manuel [“<child>” written above the line] “

Yu-mok-yah-ilp-ilp “ “ “

Chittem-neox-neox “ “ “

[between lines in red: “Fifth.”]

Yack-uiuw “ John J. Manual [“<attempt to murder>” written above the line] “

Ahl-wood “ “ “

Pish-wool “ “ “

Sush-min-pov “ “ “

Persons indicted 14. Witnesses to each of five indictments. H. J. Chapman, J J Manuel, Hl. Pipe and Johnathan Nez Percés

The following are reported to be very bad men and to have been implicated in different murders, and chief investigators of the Nez Perce War.

1 Wal-let-it Reported Killed during the war

2 Shao-sus-illpelpi “ “ “ “ “

3 Su-low zah-land. In the Indian Territory..

4 White- Bird Reported killed by Soiux [sic] Indians.

5 Lug John Reported died in Ind Territory

6 Stick-in-the mud. “ “ “ “ “

7 Cha-luyah-Bob. “ killed during the war.

8 Och-cerose. Killed a soldier prisoner at Big hole fight and an Indian? at Idaho. In [caft?] at Van BK.

9 Charley Sup-pevu neap Reported in Ind Territory

10 Kovs-alit “ “ “ “ “ [written beneath marks: “Killed Mrs. Chamberlain”]

11 Chutten hi-hi Reported Killed in war

12 Red Elk. “ In Ind Territory

13 Pew-peo-Knew “ died in Ind Terrotory

14 Cayuse Reported in Ind Terrirtory

15 Pew-pew-illpilpi “ “ “ “

16 Cox Reported Killed in war.

17 To-hull-hal-Sate “ “ “ “

18. Fau-ilpus. “ “ “ “

The great evil of our Indian troubles is in making war upon the whole tribe for the acts of individuals. In my opinion it would be better to have pursued the guilty parties to punishment. In this case the Nez Perce tribe has been severely punished as a body and the actual offender withheld from the jurisdiction of the civil Courts. If now the Government shall authorize the return to their reservation in Idaho those who so desire, I think it would be but just to the above named men that are now alive, to inform them that such authorized return would not constitute a pardon but that they are charged with high crimes and would have to answer such charge whenever the authorities may bring them before the Civil Court for trial.

Very respectfully,

Your obedient servant

[(&ga)?] Nelson A Miles:

Brigadier General,






Copy of Lawson’s letter to Capt. Stanley, relative to his having been aided by Mus. [Lailuou?] to report to her upon the Cabezon Indians in the Desert

San Bernardino May 23,

L. Q. A. Stanley Esq-


Referring to Your letter of the 20th wish that Mrs. H. H. Jackson has requested you to ascertain the condition of the Cabezon Indians &c. I have to explain my surprise that this very important duty should be delegated to an outside party when she should above all have found time to look into their condition personally.

Indirectly I [heard?] that some of the Desert Indians had been pouring their usual complaints into the ears of Mrs. Jackson, against Capt. [Whm?] & indirectly against the [two words?] they had not been “fed & blanketed” & provided with implements of agriculture, some of which I had authority to provide & which they do not need in their present situation, they are Indians unfortunately subject to the bad & injudicious [command?] & advice of certain [one word] white men, in the desert & elsewhere. And three years ago were by this matter of interference brought to open court, & there under Cabezon a very bad Indian arrested. Since then, under the manipulations of certain ill-disposed white men on the desert, the old sore has been kept open. And if it is “parts” in relation to any assumed grievances they have toward me, or toward Capt Whm, you will only arrive at them by taking Capt. Whm along with you. At the bottom of their soreness, is the suspicion on the part of young Cabezon, that Capt. Whm is aspiring to the Chieftancy of that direct band in opposition of Cabezon’s son: the thought of which has never been entertained by Whm who has got through playing Indian by this time.

My advice to Mrs. Jackson was & is respectfully given here that you promise them nothing. This has been the bane of this Agency that persons visiting these Indians under Govt. auspices make promises of this that & the other thing, when it is without authority & without the power to fulfill them. The result to these Indians of the Jackson Kinney Commission will have the same result so far as anything will be accomplished as has marked the coming of the Commissioners in the past. I will end in a report of the expenditure of $12.50 on expenses of Commissioners.—

Signed –S.S Lawson.




[“Copy” Written across top]

Bureau Catholic Indian Missions Washington D.C. March 2. 1878.


In accordance with the verbal proposition heretofore submitted to you relative to the location and consolidation of the “Mission Indians” of California, I have no the honor to submit, for the consideration of the Department, the following:

This Bureau, as the representative of the owners of two leagues of land situated in, or in the immediate vicinity of, San Diego County, Cal., is prepared to convey the said two leagues to the United States, in fee, for $50.000, and to build thereon, as such suitable points as may be determined upon, the necessary buildings for schools purpose, at a cost not to exceed $5000.

The land thus offered is well adapted and ample for the consolidation of all these indians, and of such diversified character as to enable them to settle in villages, cultivate farms or engage in herding; it is well watered and sufficiently supplied with timber.

In making this offer, I desire, however, to make it upon the following conditions:

1st—That the cost of removal of the indians to such reservation, and the erection of necessary buildings exclusive of school buildings, shall be born by the United States.

2nd—That the Agency and the conduct of the schools shall be assigned to the Catholic Church.

3rd—That, if at any time the United States desires to abandon said land as an Indian reservation for the said Mission Indians, it shall be optional with the parties conveying to repossess themselves thereof, in fee, upon refundment to the United States of the original purchase money: and that as purchasers the said grantors shall have preference over all other persons whomsoever.

In this connection, I would respectfully invite your attention to the report of U. S. Indian agent Colburn, dated Aug. 15, 1877, in which he shows that he has made a careful investigation of this question of consolidation, and urgently recommends that an appropriation of $150.000 be asked of Congress to carry into effect this desirable object.

The proposition herein made will attain the ends sought by the Department –i.e., the consolidation of these Indians—at an expense less than one half of that recommended by the Agent, and at the same time will guarantee to the Indians absolute protection against future encroachment on their lands by the whites.

I am, Sir, very respectfully

(Sgd.) Charles Ewing

C.C. for I. M.

Hon. E. A. Hayt Comis. Indian Affairs

[on verso:]

Copy Letter of

Cath. Coms for I.M.

to Com Indian affairs

Dated Mch. 2./78

Submitted proposition for location and consolidation of Mission Indians of Cal.

[in pencil:]

Also copies of Bills for purchase of land from Bishop Amat




40 th. Congress, 2nd Session.

H.R. 4549.

In the Senate of the United States.

May 2, 1878.

Referred to the Committee on Appropriates and ordered to be printed.


Intended to be proposed by Mr. Johnston to the bill (H.R 4549) making appropriations for the current and contingent expenses for the Indian Department, and for fulfilling treaty stipulations with various Indian tribes, for the year ending June thirtieth eighteen hundred and seventy nine, and for other purposes, viz. After lines 1356 insert the following:

1 For consolidating and locating the Mission of

2California: For this amount, to be expanded by the direct-

3 ion of the President in the purchase of two leagues of land being

4 and lying in the county of San Diego, California or adjacent

5 thereto, fifty thousand dollars: Provided, that a sum not in

6 excess of five thousand dollars of this amount be supplied by

7 the grantor of said land to the building of a school house at

8 such suitable points on the said reservation of land as may

9 hereafter be termined upon: And provided further, That

10 the purchase of said land shall be subject to such conditions

11 as will fully protect said Missions Indians against encroachments

12 from white citizens claiming under home

13 stead preemption, or other land laws.

[written on end:]

45 Congress 2nd Session

H. R. 4549


Intended to be proposed by Mr. Johnston to the bill (HR. 4549) making appropriations for the current and contingent expenses of the Indians Department, and for fulfilling treaty stipulations with various Indian tribes, for the year ending June 30, 1879, and for other purposes.




North San Diego jan 8th 1883,

Mr. H. F. Coronel,

Dear sir

Only to serve the orders of My deserving Ilustrisimo Bishop Mora , I take my pen to write a few points concerning a question which is not only dieing but dead. It is now seventeen years that I am witnessing the injustices and outrages which the most unjust violence and brutal force is exorcising in all the corners of this County against the poor Indians; many times I have elevated their most founded complaints now before the local authorities, now before the Minister of the interior in the Capitol of this Republic model of the most contemptible infamies also by means of the press, but my weak voice has not found an echo in any Christian heart not even generous that by means stronger and more powerful than those in my reach would put an end to so on any infamies, and so many Scandals; to so many violences and injustices against reason and right against humanity and history itself. My weak voice buried always in the tenebrous silence of space agitated only by the sad cries of defection and affliction toward the poor and unprotected victims which iniquitously were thrown from their lands in which they were born and which they irrigated with the sweat of their brow, and now, like a wandering Jew, wander about the mountains without their native country or lands like wild beasts.

Indian Towns; San Pascual 17 years ago had a population of 300 souls, with more than 600 acres of very good agricultural lands; is no occupied by more than 20 Squatters that with the riffle [sic] in hand scare away the Indians, not leaving even one, Whiskey and brutal force, nothing but the Cemetery and Chapel are left, the few Indians that were left, two years ago had to go away and live among rocky mountains like the wild beast; there are no lands in this vicinity for the Indians.

“Mesa Grande twenty miles nearer the Mountains” Indians some hundred and fifty 150 with the ones of the “Mesa Chiquita” magnificent lands for cultivation more than 10 Squatters among them that will not stop until they drive the last Indian, as in San Pascual, This is the only town that has some land left which the Government could give but…

Agua Caliente or Warner’s Ranch 150 souls those lands reclaimed by Mr. John G. Downey, no public lands there. Santa Isabel ex Mission, 150 souls lands three leagues belong to Capt Wilcox who has several times threatened to drive them away from there, no good public lands there.

San Felipe Puerta Cruz y San Jose some sixty souls living at the foot of the Mountains, no good land there for cultivation.

Vallecitos, y Carrizo some 200 souls distributed here and there, no Land.

“Cuyamaca Guata’s y valle de los Pinos, 250 souls, distributed in glens,

Matai y San Jose, 100 souls living at the foot of the Moutnains and declivities, some few prices of land good

“Huanga y Cotum 100 souls occupying small corners of good land,” Coney. 125 souls the only good lands are mountains,

Capitan grande back of the Cafon Ranch, some 50 souls; this is the last Rancheria, which has been left alone by those unjust and fraudulent Squatters, what land they have is forests &c,

Such is the sad spectacle that the Indigenous Town represents at present, before temperate and Laborious; but as the Squatters gradually become possessors of their lands, cattle, sheep, horses, and Goats they were obliged to sell their few horses, today one way and tomorrow another, until left in misery as they are now.

I had abandoned all idea of finishing this correspondence but making an effort against my sentiments, I have finished it today, only to comply with the Bishop’s request, with out the least hope of you or he ever regaining their natural and sacred rights, for me all this is dead

I remain Yours Respectfully

[written on verso:]

Letter from Father Ubach of San Diego—has been there 17 yrs.-

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